In a nationwide study conducted in Denmark, it was observed that younger patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were more likely to have cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors — such as severe obesity, hyperlipidemia, low-grade inflammation, physical inactivity, and smoking as compared to adults who developed diabetes later in life,
Dr. Anne Bo and colleagues conducted a study to examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and clinical and behavioral risk factors for later complications of diabetes.The researchers found that CVD risk factors was highest in patients with early-onset diabetes (age 18 to 45) and decreased stepwise as the age of diabetes diagnosis increased. The study was published in Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews.
The researchers conducted a cross‐sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010‐2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes‐cohort. They compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (earlyonset) with diagnosis age 46 to 55, 56 to 65 (average onset = reference), 66 to 75, and >75 years(late onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed by using Poisson regression.Results: Poor glucose control, ie, HbA1c ≥ 75 mmol/mol (≥9.0%) in the early‐, average‐, and late‐onset groups was observed in 12%, 7%, and 1%, respectively (PR 1.70 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.27, 2.28] and PR 0.17 [95% CI 0.06, 0.45]). A similar age gradient was observed for severe obesity (body mass index > 40 kg/m2: 19% vs. 8% vs. 2%; PR 2.41 [95% CI 1.83,3.18] and 0.21 (95% CI 0.08, 0.57]), dyslipidemia (90% vs. 79% vs. 68%; PR 1.14 [95% CI 1.10,1.19] and 0.86 [95% CI 0.79, 0.93]), and low‐grade inflammation (C‐reactive protein > 3.0 mg/L:53% vs. 38% vs. 26%; PR 1.41 [95% CI 1.12, 1.78] and 0.68 [95% CI 0.42, 1.11]). Daily smokingwas more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with bearly‐onset type 2 DM.
The authors concluded that they found a clear age gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM.The study suggests that patients with early-onset diabetes had poorer glycemic control than other patients and were more prone to complications.Therefore younger persons with early‐onset type 2 DM need clinical awareness and support.