Vitamin D reduces risk of Pre eclampsia in pregnancy, reveals Cochrane review.
There has been a long ambiguity about the benefits of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy, It is still unclear whether vitamin D supplementation, alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals are beneficial or harmful for mother and her offspring.
A recent Cochrane review has thrown light on the same weighing on the benefits and harms of vitamin D (alone or in combination) for pregnant women. This is an update of a review first published in 2012 and then in 2016.
The study examined whether vitamin D supplementation alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.
For the purpose, the researchers searched for evidence (July 2018) and found 30 trials (involving 7033 women) for inclusion in this update. Provided below are the findings of the study.
Vitamin D supplementation alone versus placebo:
- Reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia (4 trials, 499 women) and gestational diabetes (4 trials, 446 women).
- Reduced the risk of having a baby with low birth weight (less than 2500 g) (5 trials, 697 women).
- Made little or no difference in the risk of having a preterm birth < 37 weeks.
- Reduced the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage (1 trial, 1134 women).
There were no cases of hypercalcaemia (1 trial, 1134 women) and there was uncertainty about whether vitamin D decreases or increases the risk of nephrotic syndrome.
A total of 22 trials involving 3725 pregnant women were included in this comparison.
Vitamin D supplementation and calcium versus placebo:
- Reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia.
- Had an uncertain effect on gestational diabetes (1 trial, 54 women); and low birth weight (less than 2500 g) (2 trials, 110 women).
- Increased the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks in comparison to women who received placebo or no intervention (5 trials, 942 women).
Nine trials involving 1916 pregnant women were included in this comparison. No trial in this comparison reported on maternal adverse events.
Vitamin D supplementation + calcium + other vitamins and minerals versus calcium + other vitamins and minerals (but no vitamin D):
- Made little or no difference in the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks (1 trial, 1298 women); or low birth weight (less than 2500 g) (1 trial, 1298 women).
- It is unclear whether it makes any difference to the risk of gestational diabetes or maternal adverse events (hypercalcaemia no events; hypercalciuria 1 trial, 1298 women,) because the certainty of the evidence for both outcomes was found to be very low.
One trial in 1300 participants was included in this comparison.
To read the complete study log on to DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008873.pub4