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Fever in Children till 2 years of age: Guidelines in emergency department


Fever in Children till 2 years of age: Guidelines in emergency department

In 2016 May, American College of Emergency Physicians came out with guidelines on Clinical policy for well-appearing infants and children younger than 2 years of age presenting to the emergency department with fevery. Following are its major recommendations:-

  1. For well-appearing immunocompetent infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years presenting with fever (≥38.0°C [100.4°F]), are there clinical predictors that identify patients at risk for urinary tract infection?

Level A recommendations. None specified.

Level B recommendations. None specified.

Level C recommendations. Infants and children at increased risk for urinary tract infection include females younger than 12 months, uncircumcised males, non black race, fever duration greater than 24 hours, higher fever (≥39°C), negative test result for respiratory pathogens, and no obvious source of infection. Although the presence of a viral infection decreases the risk, no clinical feature has been shown to effectively exclude urinary tract infection. Physicians should consider urinalysis and urine culture testing to identify urinary tract infection in well-appearing infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years with a fever ≥38°C (100.4°F), especially among those at higher risk for urinary tract infection.

 

  • For well-appearing febrile infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years undergoing urine testing, which laboratory testing method(s) should be used to diagnose a urinary tract infection?

Level A recommendations. None specified.

Level B recommendations. Physicians can use a positive test result for any one of the following to make a preliminary diagnosis of urinary tract infection in febrile patients aged 2 months to 2 years: urine leukocyte esterase, nitrites, leukocyte count, or Gram’s stain.

Level C recommendations.

  1. Physicians should obtain a urine culture when starting antibiotics for the preliminary diagnosis of urinary tract infection in febrile patients aged 2 months to 2 years.
  2. In febrile infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years with a negative dipstick urinalysis result in whom urinary tract infection is still suspected, obtain a urine culture.
  • For well-appearing immunocompetent infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years presenting with fever (≥38.0°C [100.4°F]), are there clinical predictors that identify patients at risk for pneumonia for whom a chest radio graph should be obtained?

Level A recommendations. None specified.

Level B recommendations. In well-appearing immunocompetent infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years presenting with fever (≥38°C [100.4°F]) and no obvious source of infection, physicians should consider obtaining a chest radio graph for those with cough, hypoxia, rales, high fever (≥39°C), fever duration greater than 48 hours, or tachycardia and tachypnea out of proportion to fever.

Level C recommendations. In well-appearing immunocompetent infants and children aged 2 months to 2 years presenting with fever (≥38°C [100.4°F]) and wheezing or a high likelihood of bronchiolitis, physicians should not order a chest radio graph.

  • For well-appearing immunocompetent full-term infants aged 1 month to 3 months (29 days to 90 days) presenting with fever (≥38.0°C [100.4°F]), are there predictors that identify patients at risk for meningitis from whom cerebrospinal fluid should be obtained?

    Level A recommendations. None specified.

    Level B recommendations. None specified.

    Level C recommendations.

    1. Although there are no predictors that adequately identify full-term well-appearing febrile infants aged 29 to 90 days from whom cerebrospinal fluid should be obtained, the performance of a lumbar puncture may still be considered.
    2. In the full-term well-appearing febrile infant aged 29 to 90 days diagnosed with a viral illness, deferment of lumbar puncture is a reasonable option, given the lower risk for meningitis. When lumbar puncture is deferred in the full-term well-appearing febrile infant aged 29 to 90 days, antibiotics should be withheld unless another bacterial source is identified. Admission, close follow-up with the primary care provider, or a return visit for a recheck in the emergency department (ED) is needed. (Consensus recommendation)

You can read the full Guideline by clicking on the link :

Mace SE, Gemme SR, Valente JH, Eskin B, Bakes K, Brecher D, Brown MD, American College of Emergency Physicians. Clinical policy for well-appearing infants and children younger than 2 years of age presenting to the emergency department with fever. Ann Emerg Med. 2016 May;67(5):625-39.e13. [60 references] 

 

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supriya kashyap

supriya kashyap

Supriya Kashyap Joined Medical Dialogue as Reporter in 2015 . she covers all the medical specialty news in different medical categories. She also covers the Medical guidelines, Medical Journals, rare medical surgeries as well as all the updates in medical filed. She is a graduate from Delhi University. She can be contacted at supriya.kashyap@medicaldialogues.in Contact no. 011-43720751
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