Majority of eye injuries do not result in a serious visual loss but all eye injuries are important. This is important that the treatment should be instituted immediately, because in the absence of correct treatment, by far the majority of eye injuries have the potential to cause very serious and permanent damage.
The outcomes of ocular trauma depend on how the eye is injured and can range from recovery to irreversible blindness and loss of the eye.
The eye injury can occur when an object or substance, like a chemical, makes contact with the eye. It can lead to blurry vision, complete loss of vision, pain, and physical disfigurement. Common Eye injuries fall into the following subgroups-
- External Abrasions and Foreign Bodies
- Intraocular Foreign Body
- Chemical Injuries
- Radiation Injuries
- Blunt eye injury occurs when a dull object hits the eye.Blunt eye injury is more common and can result from falls and motor vehicle collisions, including airbag deployment.
- Lacerating eye injury occurs when a sharp object hits the eye. Lacerating eye injury can be caused by sharp objects like scissors or a variety of workplace-related injuries, such as in construction or manufacturing. Physical assault is a common cause of both blunt and lacerating injury.
- Eye trauma can lead to a corneal abrasion, which is when the surface layers of the cornea are rubbed off. This can be associated with severe pain and be tearing but almost always recovers completely within a few days.
- The eye injury can also be associated with a subconjunctival haemorrhage when bleeding occurs between the sclera and conjunctiva. This presents as a dense red patch on the sclera and the appearance can be anxiety provoking but they are generally not harmful and resolve within a few days to weeks.
- A hyphema is when blood accumulates between the iris and the cornea. This can be associated with blurry vision and elevated eye pressure.
- A vitreous haemorrhage refers to bleeding between the iris and the retina . A vitreous haemorrhage can cause what are called “floaters” and, at times, severe vision loss. More important, vitreous haemorrhage can be associated with retinal tears or retinal detachment,which can lead to blindness if not repaired with either laser therapy or surgery in a timely fashion.
Any time an injury to the eye causes blurred vision, double vision, pain, or light sensitivity, a medical evaluation is necessary. In severe forms of trauma and when the chemical injury is known or suspected, medical care should be sought immediately.
Protective eyewear is always recommended when playing sports or engaging in activities (workplace or home projects) in which objects or chemicals may unintentionally hit or fly into the eye. Depending on the activity, goggles may be the best way to maximize protection.
For more details click on the link: doi:10.1001/jama.2018.8457