Austria: While good hygiene is essential for health and overall well being of a person, a new study cautions against indulging in excess of it. The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, finds that excessive hygiene could result in antimicrobial resistance leading to illnesses and death.
The study by Alexander Mahnert, Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria, and colleagues have presented initial approaches to preventing the spread of antibiotic resistance in hospitals.
The number of people falling ill and dying from antibiotic-resistant germs is increasing worldwide. the World Health Organization WHO sees understanding the spread of antibiotic resistance and developing countermeasures as one of the most important global challenges.
In this study, the research group investigated microbial control – the degree of cleaning and hygiene measures – and how it influences the development of resistance.
A comparison of environments of strong microbial control with those of weak microbial control
The researchers compared the microbiome and the resistome – i.e. all existing microorganisms and antibiotic resistance – at the intensive care unit of the Department of Internal Medicine at University Hospital Graz with clean rooms subject to strong microbial control in the aerospace industry and with public and private buildings which have hardly any microbial controls. The analyses show that microbial diversity decreases in areas with high levels of hygiene but that the diversity of resistance increases. ‘In environments with strong microbial control in the intensive care unit and industrially used clean rooms, there are increasing antibiotic resistances which show a high potential for combining with pathogens,’ explains Dr Alexander Mahnert, director of studies at the Institute of Environmental Biotechnology of TU Graz, who is currently conducting research at the Medical University of Graz.
Results provide initial measures for the prevention of resistances
The results indicate that a stable microbial diversity in clinical areas counteracts the spread of resistances. ‘The microbial control of pathogens is already being successfully used in cultivated plants and also in humans in the framework of stool transplantation. Our study provides an initial foundation to pursue such ideas in indoor areas in the future,’ says Berg. Regular airing, houseplants, the deliberate use of useful microorganisms and the reduction of antibacterial cleaning agents could be the first strategies in maintaining or improving microbial diversity.
In a subsequent step, the research team at Graz University of Technology would like to develop and implement biotechnological solutions for a tailor-made microbial diversity.
For detailed study log on to https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08864-0