Asthma exacerbations in pregnancy up complication risk in mother and child
Pregnant women with asthma at times almost stop taking their asthma medicines during pregnancy out of concern that these medications may harm the fetus which may turn counterproductive according to a new study.
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in pregnant women, affecting 8%-13% of pregnant women worldwide," author Kawsari Abdullah, PhD, a research fellow at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute in Ottawa, Canada, said in a news release.
Researchers examined data on more than 103,000 pregnancies among more than 58,000 women with asthma who had babies in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2012.
Compared to women who didn't have asthma attacks during pregnancy, those who did were 17% more likely to have pregnancy-induced hypertension and 30% more likely to have dangerously high blood pressure known as preeclampsia, the study found.
Women who had asthma attacks were also 14% more likely to have low-birthweight or preterm babies and 21% more likely to have infants with birth defects.
Asthma attacks during pregnancy were rare, even though all of the study participants had asthma. A total of 2,663 women had asthma attacks during a total of 4,455 pregnancies, the study found.
Pregnant women who had asthma attacks were more likely to be older, and more likely to smoke or to have limited income or insecure housing, the study found.
Preeclampsia developed in 5.3% of pregnancies among women who did have asthma attacks and just 3.8% of pregnancies among other women in the study.
In addition, women developed pregnancy-induced hypertension in 7% of pregnancies involving asthma attacks, compared with 5.4% of other pregnancies.
Low birth weights occurred in 6.8% of pregnancies with asthma attacks, compared with 5.3% of other pregnancies, the study also found. Similarly, preterm births occurred in 8.2% of pregnancies involving asthma attacks compared with 6.7% of other pregnancies.
When women had asthma attacks during pregnancy, their children were also more likely to experience allergies and respiratory infections like pneumonia.
And, 6.2% of babies had birth defects in pregnancies involving asthma attacks, compared with 5% of infants born to mothers who didn't have asthma attacks during pregnancy.
Children were also 23% more likely to develop asthma in early childhood when mothers had asthma attacks during pregnancy. These children were also 12% more likely to have pneumonia during their first five years of life.
Women were considered to have asthma attacks or severe asthma exacerbations if they visited a doctor at least five times for asthma problems during pregnancy or if they went to a hospital or emergency room for asthma symptoms.
One limitation of the study is that this definition might not always correctly identify women with uncontrolled symptoms, the study authors note. Some women with five or more checkups for asthma symptoms during pregnancy could, in fact, be controlling their illness well.
Journal- European Respiratory Journal
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