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NICE guidelines on IV fluid Therapy in Children and Young people

NICE guidelines on IV fluid Therapy in Children and Young people

The safe use of IV fluid therapy in children requires accurate prescribing of fluid and careful monitoring. Incorrectly prescribed or administered fluids are potentially very dangerous. More adverse events are described from fluid administration than for any other individual drug.

In December 2015, NICE came out with guidelines on Intravenous fluid therapy in children and young people in hospital.  The major recommendations of the guidelines are as follows:-

Principles and Protocols for Intravenous Fluid Therapy

Offer IV fluid therapy as part of a protocol :

  • Assess fluid and electrolyte needs following algorithm 1: Assessment and monitoring.
  • If term neonates, children and young people need IV fluids for fluid resuscitation, follow algorithm 2: Fluid resuscitation.
  • If term neonates, children and young people need IV fluids for routine maintenance, follow algorithm 3: Routine maintenance.
  • If term neonates, children and young people need IV fluids to address existing deficits or excesses, ongoing abnormal losses or abnormal fluid distribution, follow algorithm 4: Replacement and redistribution.
  • If hypernatraemia develops, follow algorithm 5: Managing hypernatraemia that develops during IV fluid therapy.
  • If hyponatraemia develops, follow algorithm 6: Managing hyponatraemia that develops during IV fluid therapy.

Assessment and Monitoring

Use body weight to calculate IV fluid and electrolyte needs for term neonates, children and young people.

Consider using body surface area to calculate IV fluid and electrolyte needs if accurate calculation of insensible losses is important (for example, if the weight is above the 91st centile, or with acute kidney injury, known chronic kidney disease or cancer).

In term neonates, children and young people who are receiving IV fluids, assess and document the following:

  • Actual or estimated daily body weight. Record the weight from the current day, the previous day, and the difference between the two. If an estimate was used, the actual weight should be measured as soon as clinically possible.
  • Fluid input, output and balance over the previous 24 hours
  • Any special instructions for prescribing, including relevant history
  • An assessment of the fluid status
  • The results of laboratory and point-of-care assessments, including:
    • Full blood count
    • Urea
    • Creatinine
    • Plasma electrolyte concentrations (including chloride, sodium and potassium; see recommendation below)
    • Blood glucose (see recommendation below)
    • Urinary electrolyte concentrations
  • Details of any ongoing losses (see recommendation below and the diagram of ongoing losses in the original guideline document)
  • Calculations of fluid needs for routine maintenance, replacement, redistribution and resuscitation
  • The fluid and electrolyte prescription (in ml per hour), with clear signatures, dates and times
  • Types and volumes of fluid input and output (urine, gastric and other), recorded hourly and with running totals
  • 12-hourly fluid balance subtotals
  • 24-hourly fluid balance totals
  • 12-hourly reassessments of:
    • The fluid prescription
    • Current hydration status
    • Whether oral fluids can be started
    • Urine and other outputs

Measure plasma electrolyte concentrations using laboratory tests when starting IV fluids, and then at least every 24 hours or more frequently if there are electrolyte disturbances.

Measure blood glucose when starting IV fluids, and then at least every 24 hours or more frequently if there is a risk of hypoglycaemia.

Consider point-of-care testing for measuring plasma electrolyte concentrations and blood glucose in time-critical situations when IV fluids are needed (for example, during emergency situations and in the accident and emergency department [A&E], theatre and critical care).

Diagnose clinical dehydration and hypovolaemic shock

Fluid Resuscitation

If children and young people need IV fluid resuscitation, use glucose-free crystalloids1 that contain sodium in the range 131–154 mmol/litre, with a bolus of 20 ml/kg over less than 10 minutes. Take into account pre-existing conditions (for example, cardiac disease or kidney disease), as smaller fluid volumes may be needed.

If term neonates need IV fluid resuscitation, use glucose-free crystalloids1 that contain sodium in the range 131–154 mmol/litre, with a bolus of 10–20 ml/kg over less than 10 minutes.

Do not use tetrastarch for fluid resuscitation.

Reassess term neonates, children and young people after completion of the IV fluid bolus, and decide whether they need more fluids.

Seek expert advice (for example, from the paediatric intensive care team) if 40–60 ml/kg of IV fluid or more is needed as part of the initial fluid resuscitation.

Routine Maintenance

Calculate routine maintenance IV fluid rates for children and young people using the Holliday–Segar formula (100 ml/kg/day for the first 10 kg of weight, 50 ml/kg/day for the next 10 kg and 20 ml/kg/day for the weight over 20 kg). Be aware that over a 24-hour period, males rarely need more than 2500 ml and females rarely need more than 2000 ml of fluids.

Calculate routine maintenance IV fluid rates for term neonates according to their age, using the following as a guide:

  • From birth to day 1: 50–60 ml/kg/day
  • Day 2: 70–80 ml/kg/day
  • Day 3: 80–100 ml/kg/day
  • Day 4: 100–120 ml/kg/day
  • Days 5–28: 120–150 ml/kg/day

If children and young people need IV fluids for routine maintenance, initially use isotonic crystalloids2 that contain sodium in the range 131–154 mmol/litre.

Measure plasma electrolyte concentrations and blood glucose when starting IV fluids for routine maintenance (except before most elective surgery), and at least every 24 hours thereafter.

Be aware that plasma electrolyte concentrations and blood glucose are not routinely measured before elective surgery unless there is a need to do so, based on the child’s medical condition or the type of surgery.

Base any subsequent IV fluid prescriptions on the plasma electrolyte concentrations and blood glucose measurements.

If term neonates need IV fluids for routine maintenance, initially use isotonic crystalloids2 that contain sodium in the range 131–154 mmol/litre with 5% to 10% glucose.

For term neonates in critical postnatal adaptation phase (for example, term neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration, hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy), give no or minimal sodium until postnatal diuresis with weight loss occurs.

If there is a risk of water retention associated with non-osmotic antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion, consider either:

  • Restricting fluids to 50% to 80% of routine maintenance needs or
  • Reducing fluids, calculated on the basis of insensible losses within the range 300–400 ml/m2/24 hours plus urinary output

When using body surface area to calculate IV fluid needs for routine maintenance (see recommendation in the “Assessment and Monitoring” section above), estimate insensible losses within the orange 300–400 ml/m2/24 hours plus urinary output.

Replacement and Redistribution

If term neonates, children and young people need IV fluids for replacement or redistribution, adjust the IV fluid prescription (in addition to maintenance needs) to account for existing fluid and/or electrolyte deficits or excesses, ongoing losses (see the diagram of ongoing losses in the original guideline document) or abnormal distribution, for example, tissue oedema seen in sepsis.

Consider isotonic crystalloids2 that contain sodium in the range 131–154 mmol/litre for redistribution.

Use 0.9% sodium chloride containing potassium to replace ongoing losses (see the diagram of ongoing losses in the original guideline document).

Base any subsequent fluid prescriptions on the plasma electrolyte concentrations and blood glucose measurements.

Managing Hypernatraemia That Develops During Intravenous Fluid Therapy

If hypernatraemia develops in term neonates, children and young people, review the fluid status and take action as follows:

  • If there is no evidence of dehydration and an isotonic fluid is being used, consider changing to a hypotonic fluid (for example, 0.45% sodium chloride with glucose)3.
  • If dehydration is diagnosed, calculate the water deficit and replace it over 48 hours, initially with 0.9% sodium chloride.
  • If the fluid status is uncertain, measure urine sodium and osmolality.
  • If hypernatraemia worsens or is unchanged after replacing the deficit, review the fluid type and consider changing to a hypotonic solution (for example, 0.45% sodium chloride with glucose).

When correcting hypernatraemia, ensure that the rate of fall of plasma sodium does not exceed 12 mmol/litre in a 24-hour period.

Measure plasma electrolyte concentrations every 4 to 6 hours for the first 24 hours, and after this base the frequency of further plasma electrolyte measurements on the treatment response.

Managing Hyponatraemia That Develops during Intravenous Fluid Therapy

If asymptomatic hyponatraemia develops in term neonates, children and young people, review the fluid status and take action as follows:

  • If a child is prescribed a hypotonic fluid, change to an isotonic fluid (for example, 0.9% sodium chloride).
  • Restrict maintenance IV fluids in children and young people who are hypervolaemic or at risk of hypervolaemia (for example, if there is a risk of increased ADH secretion) by either:
    • Restricting maintenance fluids to 50% to 80% of routine maintenance needs or
    • Reducing fluids, calculated on the basis of insensible losses within the range 300–400 ml/m2/24 hours plus urinary output

Be aware that the following symptoms are associated with acute hyponatraemia during IV fluid therapy:

  • Headache
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Confusion and disorientation
  • Irritability
  • Lethargy
  • Reduced consciousness
  • Convulsions
  • Coma
  • Apnoea

If acute symptomatic hyponatraemia develops in term neonates, children and young people, review the fluid status, seek immediate expert advice (for example, from the paediatric intensive care team) and consider taking action as follows:

  • Use a bolus of 2 ml/kg (maximum 100 ml) of 2.7% sodium chloride over 10 to 15 minutes.
  • Use a further bolus of 2 ml/kg (maximum 100 ml) of 2.7% sodium chloride over the next 10 to 15 minutes if symptoms are still present after the initial bolus.
  • If symptoms are still present after the second bolus, check the plasma sodium level and consider a third bolus of 2 ml/kg (maximum 100 ml) of 2.7% sodium chloride over 10 to 15 minutes.
  • Measure the plasma sodium concentration at least hourly.
  • As symptoms resolve, decrease the frequency of plasma sodium measurements based on the response to treatment.

Do not manage acute hyponatraemic encephalopathy using fluid restriction alone.

After hyponatraemia symptoms have resolved, ensure that the rate of increase of plasma sodium does not exceed 12 mmol/litre in a 24-hour period.

 

For more details click on this link https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng29

 

Source: self

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